How does toxic masculinity affect drug and alcohol abuse for males under the age of 18 compared to females under the age of 18?


by : 
McKenna R.


Nearly one billion males worldwide are affected by substance abuse, twice the number of females affected (Kloos, Weller, Weller, and Chan, 2009). Despite the belief that substance abuse is a problem for the entire population, there is no doubt that there is a gender gap in substance abuse. A factor of this problem comes from the pressures that create toxic masculinity. Boys' influences, such as their fathers, often create unrealistic expectations of masculinity to reach, creating "toxically" masculine men (Harrington, 2021). By investigating the factors leading to this serious issue, which is negatively influencing boys' risk for addiction and dependence, an observational case study research can identify how strong the linear relationship between substance abuse in men and toxic masculinity is. In addition, the findings of this research will help schools all over the country implement more resources available to males to enable students to feel safe and live free from masculine pressure, ultimately reducing the amount of substance abuse.