Advanced Authentic Research

Projects (2017-18)

Business

Business Owners and Mislabeling in the Seafood Industry

Within the seafood industry, mislabeling is common. Some studies have found the mislabeling rate to be as high as 33%. One potential solution is to educate restaurant owners about the issue so they can avoid mislabeled food. This project will find out how much restaurant owners know about the issue and potential solutions to the problem.

Business

Case Study of Bay Area Entrepreneurs

I want to study what drives the success of bay area entrepreneurs. The bay area is full of successful entrepreneurs, and my project will examine what factors set these people apart and lead to them succeeding in this highly competitive realm.

Business

Ending Patent Trolls

A Patent Assertion Entity (PAE), often more commonly known as a “patent troll,” is a company that acquires overly broad patents to try and make money by threatening small businesses with lawsuits and collecting settlements. This project will examine how PAEs have negatively impacted innovation, the creation of small businesses, the economy, and stalling the ability for small businesses to... Read More

Business

How Adoption of Cryptocurrencies (e.g., Bitcoin) as a Mainstream Form of Payment Might Be Affected as High-Frequency Trading Becomes More Prevalent Among Major Currencies

The aim of this research project is to determine whether or not cryptocurrencies will become a mainstream form of payment in the near future. Recently, high-frequency trading firms have started to gravitate toward cryptocurrency markets as profits have become increasingly difficult in traditional stocks. This project will analyze the relationship between the involvement of high-frequency... Read More

Business

How Employee Benefits Affect Company Productivity

The harsh working enviornment of Apple factory employees in China and the lush work environment at Google's headquarters in Mountain View are both widely known, for opposite reasons. Although the treatment of the employees differs greatly, both groups are exceptionally efficient. How do employee benefits affect the behavior of the employees? In addition, how does employees' happiness affect... Read More

Business

How Korean Beauty Empowers Women Entrepreneurs in the U.S.

The recent wave of influence by Asian/Korean culture in the U.S., known as the Hallyu Wave, has brought food, Korean dramas, and K-pop to America, as well as Korea's unique, elaborate beauty/skincare culture. Dewy skin, natural looks, and patented cushion formulas have all made their marks in the U.S.. Women entrepreneurs in America have taken advantage of ideas from the Korean beauty market... Read More

Business

How Silicon Valley Companies Can Provide More Job Opportunities to Local Residents

Silicon Valley is a fiercely competitive market that large corporations and hopeful entrepreneurs flock to from all over the world. However, this has also led to an immense increase in the demand for land and building space. As a result, companies have begun to move into more residential areas, causing concern over gentrification. This project will study how well different companies integrate... Read More

Business

How Social Media Affects Gender Equality

This project focuses on how social media is being used to empower women. Despite efforts to use social media platforms to promote social good, women and women’s rights issues are aggressively being shamed on social media in an attempt to shut these efforts down. This problem negatively impacts all women, because women are impacted by the effects of both systemic and specific sexism in their... Read More

Business

How Teaspoon Collect Consumer Information to Better Target Marketing

I will be partnering with the local tea company, Teaspoon, to investigate how they collect consumer information in order to better target market towards customers. I hope to work with their marketing team to see how exactly they use this collected information as well. This information will be used to determine the most effective strategies for increasing their social media presence.

Business

How to Minimize Risk in Stock Market Investment

When you buy stock, you become a shareholder, which means you now own a "part" of the company. If the company's profits go up, you "share" in those profits. If the company starts doing well, you start earning money. However if a company starts to do badly, you can lose money. My project will examine how to invest into companies effectively by analyzing their growth and identifying and reducing... Read More

Business

Income Effects on Computer Science

There is an increasing demand for computer science workers who are proficient in coding. Recently, the average annual salary for computer science workers in Silicon Valley has been around $133,000, and the national average is has been around $113,000, according to Glassdoor's salary database. Several nonprofits have been organized to help provide a bridge for underrepresented communities to... Read More

Business

Non-Traditional Variables for Measuring the Stability of the Economy

Despite efforts to improve our methods of analyzing the economy, we were unable to foresee the devastating crash of 2008. Traditional measures such as GDP fail to represent all aspects of the American economy. As a result, economists have researched the relationships between the economy’s stability and other variables, such as stock prices, banking development, and environmental conditions. I... Read More

Business

What Matters to Business Customers in Selecting an Airline

There are many factors that come into play when a business traveller chooses which airline ticket to buy. This research project will focus on determining which factor a business customer considers most important when they purchase an airline ticket. Research will be conducted through a combination of database research and surveys of business travelers.

Social Science

"Pasung" Shackling the Mentally Ill in Indonesia

The goal of this project is to determine whether or not the government of Indonesia is aware of how severe “Pasung” shackling a mentally ill person is in rural and poorer parts of the country. The project is targeting those specific areas because they are far from hospitals, and most people there can’t afford proper medication or treatment. The project will consist of personal interviews from... Read More

Social Science

Causes of Stigma Against Students with ADHD in Palo Alto and How to Counter Them

Approximately 6.4 million children have been diagnosed with ADHD, with a 5% increase of diagnoses per year since 2003. There are many negative stigma associated with school-aged children with ADHD. The stigma can affect treatment efficiency as well as the mental well-being of individuals affected by ADHD. Prior studies have found that children with ADHD self-identified most of their behavior... Read More

Social Science

Changing the Narrative: How Men Can Be Encouraged to Express Their Emotions

Mainstream culture in the United States tends to promote hyper-masculinity, which rewards the rejection of emotion ("real men don't cry") and embraces sexual conquest ("sleep with as many women as possible, treat them poorly"). By being encouraged to reject emotion, men are discouraged from developing deep friendships or connections. This can also lead to mental health issues. This project... Read More

Social Science

Comparison of Left-Behind Children in Rural China and Immigrant Chinese Students in the United States

In recent years, China’s population of left-behind children (i.e., children who have at least one parent who has migrated to an urban area in search of employment to support the family) is on rise. Researchers have found a general trend of left-behind children’s emotional well-being and academic performance suffering negative effects due to the resulting lack of parental care. Also, as an... Read More

Social Science

Creativity in Education: Creativity Carts

Creativity carts are carts filled with arts and crafts supplies that are used in PAUSD elementary schools during creative sessions or lessons. I am going to administer surveys to teachers who participate in the creativity carts program to determine what additions can be made to the creativity carts to maximize their effectiveness, and how the creativity carts enhance the education of... Read More

Social Science

Developing a Better Litter Prevention Program

My project focuses on how to alleviate the issue of litter. This project will involve running a school-wide program where, using incentives, students are encouraged to pick up the litter they see around campus. Students who participate in the program will be in the running for a prize, which will be awarded at a public event. The goal of this pilot program is to instill an anti-littering... Read More

Social Science

Effectiveness and Availability of Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy for People with Mental Challenges in the Bay Area

This research project will examine the accesibility and effectiveness of equine-assisted therapy in the Bay Area. Case studies and interviews with therapists will be used to develop materials (specifically, a pamphlet) to increase access and outreach. This pamphlet will be developed as a tool to educate the public on what equine-assisted therapy is and what current resources exist in the Bay... Read More

Social Science

Effects of Pesticide Chlorpyrifos on Communities

This study aims to understand the impact that Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide with neurotoxic effects, can have on farming communities. Using interviews with experts coding to analyze them, this research will attempt to identify effective ways to combat the negative effects of Chlorpyrifos.

Social Science

Environmental Racism

Environmental racism is about the deliberate placement of environmental hazards such as toxic waste and treatment plants for toxic waste in minority and low-income neighborhoods. Despite federal laws that protect these people, environmental racism is still a factor in moder American life. This research project will examine federal laws pertaining to racial discrimination and environmental... Read More

Social Science

Gardening and Student Health

This project focuses on bettering Paly students' health through a community garden. The intent is to show how a community garden can improve both physical and mental health. Students will be able to learn hard work and dedication while at the same time learning what its like to nurture something. Students' confidence will increase, and they will spend more time outside.

Social Science

High School Students' Perception of Political Bias in News Coverage of Current Events

In recent years, the American public has become increasingly polarized, especially in regard to news media. In what is known as the “hostile media effect,” both liberals and conservatives tend to claim that the media is biased against their side. This study investigates partisan perception of bias among the top U.S. news outlets.

Social Science

How Age Affects Perceptions of Inclusion of People with Disabilities

Young children assigning meaning to their perceptions of people different than themselves is an indicator of developing judgements. Understanding this shift from perception to judgement may shed light on why people become less inclusive as they grow older. This project will study patterns of inclusivity in maturing children to determine if it is possible to reverse misinformed negative... Read More

Social Science

How Destructive Female Friendships Relate to Competition Between Women for Relationships and Professional Success

This project's goal is to look at unhealthy female friendships and to determine whether negative behaviors that can often arise between girls--such as the exclusion of "friends" and gossiping--are intentional or subconscious. This project will also study how society perpetuates those behaviors--intentionally or not--through gender socialization that might lead to either competition for male... Read More

Social Science

How Different Kinds of Media Affect Perception of Mental Health

I put together a podcast about mental health, which includes interviews about people's personal experiences. A focus group will be surveyed about their perceptions of mental health. Then, the podcast will be played to the same focus group, and they will be surveyed on their perception of mental health after the podcast. The two sets of surveys will be compared to determine whether and how the... Read More

Social Science

How Different Types of Unstable Housing Situations Lead to Distinct Health Outcomes Among HIV/AIDS Patients who Experience Housing Insecurity

Prior research has shown that unstable housing leads to significantly worse health outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS. However, current housing programs for HIV/AIDS patients who experience housing insecurity have not been effective in promoting better health outcomes for these patients. Perhaps our measurement of homelessness is imprecise and overlooks a diversity of unstable housing... Read More

Social Science

How Government Policy Relating to Homelessness Affects the Education of Homeless Youth in the Bay Area

The goal of this project is to research the effects of both federal and state legislation in regard to the education of homeless students. Interviews with school administrators will be conducted to determine what changes, accommodations, and services homeless students need in order to succeed. This data will be synthesized, summarized, and then presented.

Social Science

How High Schools in America Support Students with Mental Health Issues

For this project, I will be going to different high schools in the Bay Area and meeting with their guidance counselors and administration. I will ask them what programs and services they offer to support students at school with mental health issues. I will then use this information to evaluate each school. The results will be used to design a platform where guidance counselors at different... Read More

Social Science

How PAUSD Can Encourage Racial Diversity in Honors and AP STEM Classes

This research project will be taking a case study inquiry approach to investigate the causes behind the lack of underrepresented minorities in honors and AP STEM classes at Palo Alto High School. Minorities make up a disproportionately small fraction of the greater STEM workforce, which may be attributed to a lacking high school curriculum. Through the coding of focus groups and interviews,... Read More

Social Science

How Political Isolation Affects Political Polarization

Our project analyzes political polarization in America. We built an algorithm that used phrases typically associated with Democrats or Republicans to try to determine which party a speech sample belongs to. We will run speeches from politicians that are in the minority political party in their state and see how accurate our algorithm is in determining the party of the speaker. We will compare... Read More

Social Science

How Toxicity and Gender Change the Way People Play Games Before the Game Even Starts

This research project will examine how toxicity and gender change the way people play video games before they pick up the controller. The medium for this project will be the online game Overwatch and how players' choice of character changes when players are exposed to toxicity. The aim is to show how stereotypes sustain themselves and evolve.

Social Science

Identifying Effective Instructional Technology in 6-8 Education

This research aims to determine which types of instructional technology teachers should use to drive student learning. Over 90% of schools provide access to computers and internet access, but many teachers either choose not to use instructional technology or use technology ineffectively. This study aims to produce results that can assist teachers in choosing the most effective and efficient... Read More

Social Science

Identifying Effective Methods to Encourage Households to Compost

When food decays in a landfill, it is trapped under layers of garbage, creating an anaerobic environment that causes methane to be released into the atmosphere. When food is composted, it decays in an aerobic environment, producing carbon dioxide, a much less potent green house gas, instead. Although all Palo Alto residents have been given compost bins, they are not always used. This research... Read More

Social Science

Improving Effective Use of Existing Technology in Public Schools

The "digital divide" refers to the gap between privileged and underprivileged people as seen through their access to technology. Although technology has become more affordable, there is a lack of understanding of how to use it to its full advantage. Palo Alto High School provides students with Chromebooks, but these machines are dependent on wifi and lack significant standalone computer... Read More

Social Science

Increasing Access to Higher Education for Low-Income Students

There is a college access problem for low-income students. Nationwide efforts have been made to increase access to higher education, and nationwide efforts have been made to increase access, but “while half of all people from high-income families have a bachelor’s degree by age 25, just 1 in 10 people from low-income families do” (Bailey, Dynarski, 2011). This negatively impacts low-income... Read More

Social Science

Karoshi (Death from Overwork) and the Growth of Labor Laws in Japan

This project examines Japanese karoshi (death from overwork) and the laws related karoshi from the earliest recorded cases of the problem through the present. It details the development of the public reaction to karoshi, working hours, and legal protections for workers as they change over the course of the years. The ultimate goal is to understand karoshi as it is now, the effectiveness of... Read More

Social Science

Mandatory Computer Science in School

Only about 40% of American public schools have computer science programs. Most of these are in the wealthiest regions in America. Children who live in low income neighborhoods will never have a chance to be exposed to these kinds of classes, and these classes could change their lives.

Social Science

Measuring How Speech Patterns Differ in State Congressional Speeches Using Partisan and/or Regional Key Phrases

For this project, we will be designing a program to analyze speech patterns in state congressional speeches based on key words and phrases. Certain words and phrases are more characteristic of one political party than another, and the frequency of those words can be used to measure the speaker's party polarization. By measuring how accurately the program can identify the party of the speaker,... Read More

Social Science

Mental Health in the Juvenile Justice System

Youths who have gone through the Juvenile Justice System are often underrepresented and overlooked. These youths often face irreversible changes to their mental health, such as the development of mental health disorders or the worsening of pre-existing conditions. Using data collected through a series of interviews and focus groups, we are going to create a proposal to submit to the city on... Read More

Social Science

Paly Student Satisfaction with School Wellness Programs

This project will collect qualitiative data as to how students view various wellness programs at Palo Alto High School. The results can be used to improve program offerings.

Social Science

Policy and the Movement of Undocumented Immigrants: A Look at the Correlation between State Policy and Undocumented Immigrant Populations in the United States over the Past 10 Years

Over the course of the last few years, undocumented immigration has become more of a hot topic than ever. With all the discussion in recent months about DACA, deportation, and other issues, it has become increasingly difficult to separate facts from inaccurate rhetoric to understand how immigrants are actually integrated into American society. By understanding the policies set in place by... Read More

Social Science

Reasons for and Impacts of Schools Cutting Their Arts Programs

This research aims to determine the reasons why some low-income schools cut classes relating to fine arts. We will compare how the availability of art classes at a school can affect students' academic achievements in comparison to schools where these classes are not available. Hopefully, this will show the value of these classes and provide evidence for why schools should not cut fine arts... Read More

Social Science

Reasons for High Dropout Rates in World Language Classes and How to Encourage Students to Continue in Language Education

In an increasingly globalized society, foreign language education is a key factor in breaking barriers and immersing oneself in a culture different from one's own. Most high schools have a two year language requirement, but many students choose not to continue language studies after the graduation requirement is met.

Social Science

Teacher Well-Being

Our project aims to assess teacher well-being at PALY. From research, teacher well-being affects not only teachers themselves, but it also affects the general climate of the school as well as the quality of students' education. We hope that by examining and bringing attention to the needs of the teachers at PALY, we can improve school, student, and teacher life all together.

Social Science

The Effectiveness of Breathing Techniques in Improving Athletes' Mindsets and Resilience to Failure

A large part of whether an athlete can succeed in high school and beyond is how they respond to and view failure and errors made while playing in a game, such as a missed shot or turnover in basketball. Game time situations, meaning events that take place during time-sensitive moments while facing an opponent in an official match, can be stressful. This stress can lead athletes to browbeat and... Read More

Social Science

The Effectiveness of Different Types of Music in Decreasing Stress, Increasing Motivation and Confidence, and Improving Mood

This aim of this research project is to study the deliberate use of music to decrease stress, increase motivation and confidence, and improve mood among people of varying ages in Palo Alto. While musical intervention such as music therapy has been shown to be beneficial in increasing physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual health, a limited number of people choose music to gain a positive... Read More

Social Science

The Harmful Effects of Gentrification

This project will examine the issue of gentrification in America. Gentrification involves racial segregation and socioeconomic segregation through displacement of minority communities. This project will examine the types of methods that are being employed to help victims of gentrification and the effectiveness of these methods. It will also provide real-world accounts of those who have... Read More

Social Science

The Importance of Student Participation in Language Development from Middle School to High School

This project revolves around seeing what role participation plays in a student's comprehension of a new language and how important it is for them. The data for this project will be collected through interviews with language teachers at the middle and high school level.

Social Science

The Oral History of Palo Alto Senior Citizens

Many senior citizens in America struggle with feelings of loneliness and isolation, despite the efforts of various organizations to give seniors opportunities to interact socially. In a University of San Francisco study that included 1604 participants with an average 71 years old, 43% of seniors reported feeling lonely (Kim, 2012). Loneliness negatively impacts quality of life and can even... Read More

Social Science

The State of Arts Education in K-12 Public Schools

It is widely accepted that for education is important for America's youth. In particular, there is broad agreement that STEM subjects are essential, and that writing well is a valuable skill. However, an important opportunity in K-12 education is being ignored. K-12 public schools tend to lack arts education. Arguably, experiencing a Shakespeare performance by professional actors, viewing art... Read More

Social Science

The Voluntary Transfer Program and the Racial Achievement Gap in PAUSD

The “achievement gap” is the persistent disparity in educational performance among various groups and is a commonly discussed issue in today’s society. In reality, there are numerous achievement gaps: the gender achievement gap, socioeconomic status achievement gap, learning disabilities achievement gap, and the racial achievement gap. When people talk about a generic achievement gap, it is... Read More

Social Science

Tracking the Social Divide Between Special Education Students and General Education Students

My project is focused on the divide between Special Education and General Education students. I am researching the benefits of having a more integrated classroom. To get to the bottom of this issue, I am looking at where the divide begins, surveying and interviewing elementary, middle, and high school students.

Social Science

Underlying Causes of Incarceration and Preventing Recidivism

The prison system in America is systemically flawed. Despite efforts to fight systemic racism and lower the black-to-white disparities in incarceration rates, a disproportionate number of black people are being incarcerated for crimes for which white people would not even be convicted. 1 in 3 black men can expect to go to prison in their lifetimes, as opposed to 1 in 17 white men (Knafo, 2013... Read More

Social Science

Youth-Driven Mental Health Programs

I want to research how effective youth-driven wellness programs are at preventing student suicides. To do so, I will be surveying facilitators and participants and coding information from youth-driven mental health programs in Palo Alto.

STEM

Affordability of Medicine Within the United States

The price of pharmaceutical drugs in America is becoming unaffordable for many Americans. As a result, people who are sick might not be able to afford their medicine.The cost of medication is so high partly because drug companies say they need to charge high prices to pay for their research, but the U.S has also fewer regulations on drug pricing than other countries. In order to study the... Read More

STEM

AI Algorithm that Calculates the Heart Rate from an Electrocardiogram (ECG)

My mentor will provide data sets of electrocardiograms that his company has collected. Using knowledge of machine learning that I will gain through background research, I will create an AI algorithm that will "learn" the relationship between an electrocardiogram and the heart rate. Essentially, I will feed my algorithm sets of electrocardiograms with corresponding heart rates, and the... Read More

STEM

Analyzing Sounds Emitted by Motorized Vehicles

I will record and visually display sounds emitted by motorized vehicles, and I will use software to analyze those recordings to see if there are any trends. A significant amount of research has been done on the analysis of voice, but little has been done on sound analysis regarding the environment and inanimate objects.

STEM

Applications of Nanotechnology in Medicine

In this project, I will be exploring the applications of nanoscale particles in the field of medicine. Many medicinal techniques are ineffective and could be improved with nanotechnology or by combining current techniques with nanotechnology. Not only will I research the current applications of nanotech, I will also explore potential applications that could exist in the future.

STEM

Economic Gardens

The main roadblocks to developing fully sustainable gardens are factors that affect the water used in growing plants. Water ground soil evaporation is the amount of water that evaporates in an area of land in a given time frame. Groundwater erosion is a negative effect of having water flowing underground. Water efficiency is the amount of water that, when put into an area, is actually used by... Read More

STEM

Effective Methods for a Counselor-Based School Mental Health Program to Prevent Additional Suicide deaths After a Public Suicide in PAUSD

Despite​​ ​​numerous​​ ​​attempts​​ ​​at​​ ​​preventing​​ ​​suicide,​​ ​​high​​-achievement​​ ​​communities​​ ​​are​ ​still​​ ​​struggling​​ ​​to​​ ​​design​ ​programs​​ ​​that​​ ​​are​​ ​​effective​​ ​​at​​ ​​preventing​​ ​​these​​ ​​deaths.​​ This​​ ​​problem​​ ​​has​ ​negatively​​ ​​impacted​​ ​​both​​ ​​​individuals​ and communities at large, since​​ ​​people​​ ​​are​​ ​​still​​ ​​... Read More

STEM

Effects of AI in a Changing Business Climate

As AI gains prevalence in more areas of society, it is becoming much more advanced and capable of rapidly changing many historically consistent or slow-to-evolve aspects of society, including business, economics, military strategy, entertainment. As AI capability continues to increase, how will AI affect business even further than it already has in the near future? To answer this question, I... Read More

STEM

Electric Regeneration in Electric Bikes

This research project will study electric regeneration's effect on battery life, total run time, and number of times the battery is able to be recharged in electric bicycles. Other factors that will be examined include the stress that electrical braking takes off of the friction brakes and the difference between electric braking with a throttle and electric braking with a switch.

STEM

Graph Theory Study of Metal Doped Graphene Edge State

There has been little study done on the edge state of graphene. By utilizing graph theory, we can accurately model the electron density in the edge state. This approach could be used to form certain carbon allotropes such as buckyballs and C nanotubes.

STEM

Graphene Doping

We will examine how properties of graphene change as we dope them with pairs of metals. We are using Quantum Espresso to simulate how the particles interact with each other. We will also compare these changes in properties to other experiments to see how this can be used as a semiconductor or for other purposes.

STEM

How Carbon Emissions Affect Climate Change

As global temperature begins to rise, there are many effects throughout the world, including more floods, more rain, droughts, freezing, natural disasters, etc. There are many reasons why this climate change is currently taking place, but it is primarily due to human activities such as releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere through the burning of... Read More

STEM

How Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Causing Mutations in the Lever Arm of the Myosin Motor Affect the Function of the Myosin

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heart disease usually caused by genetic mutations. We have isolated these mutations and plan to grow muscle cell cultures with them. Once this has been accomplished, we will test the function of the mutated cells.

STEM

How Levels of the EGFR Protein in Cells Relate to Cancer Rates

The goal of this project is to study the correlation between the amount of the EGFR protein in a cell and its likelihood to be cancerous. Multiple databases and studies will be analyzed. The obtained data will be used to determine whether or not there is a correlation between EGFR levels and cancer rates.

STEM

How Low Income California Residents Are Affected by Their Enrollment with MediCal

While Medical was created to benefit low income residents in California, it has also succeeded in creating new inconveniences and injustices for its recipients. Many doctors do not accept Medical insurance due to its low reimbursement rates for the doctors, causing access issues for recipients. While there are many great nonprofit health clinics, people may not be aware of this option and will... Read More

STEM

How the Length of DNA Multimers Influences the Efficiency of Transforming the Bacteria Bacillus Subtilis

The bacteria Bacillus subtilis has a multitude of industrial uses thanks to its extensive variety of enzymes. However, its thick cell wall poses a barrier to manipulating the species to the extent necessary to meet all industrial demands. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) presents a novel approach that generates multimers--multiple plasmids (i.e., bacterial DNA) linked together--such that... Read More

STEM

How to Optimize and Naturalize Computer-Designed Images

Utilizing machine learning, computers can now be taught to generate real images. This project uses a general adversarial network (GAN) to generate images. A GAN is composed of two neural networks: one plays the painter and one the judge. The painter uses responses from the judge to improve its painting, eventually generating life-like images. However, getting a GAN to work as intended in this... Read More

STEM

How Variation in Response to Medication due to CYP450 Enzymes Affects Adverse Drug Reaction Rates (in Terms of Health and Healthcare Costs) Through Prevention of Adverse Drug Reaction?

Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), negative reactions to medication when used as prescribed, are responsible for many deaths each year in the United States. Estimates from different studies range from 7,000 deaths a year (courtesy of a study conducted by the Institute of Medicine in 2000) to as high as 106,000 a year, which would place ADRs as the fourth leading cause of death in the United States... Read More

STEM

Identifying the Most Effective Single Agent for Treating Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Follicular non-hodgkin's lymphoma is often treated with a combination of drugs tailored to be the most suitable for each individual patient. this project will focus on single agents that are the most effective in treating this disease. In order to do this, I set up a lab procedure with my mentor, and we will be testing several single agents (rituximab, bendamustine, doxorubicin, etc.) on... Read More

STEM

Improving Animal Models Best Represent Alzheimer’s Disease

This research project will analyze the flaws in using current mice models to evaluate Alzheimer’s disease. The limitations of mice models will be identified through extensive research and previous studies. These findings will contribute to suggesting potential improvements to the modeling of Alzheimer’s disease. The project will validate the findings by applying them to other organisms... Read More

STEM

Improving Animal Models Best Represent Alzheimer’s Disease

This research project will analyze the flaws in using current mice models to evaluate Alzheimer’s disease. The limitations of mice models will be identified through extensive research and previous studies. These findings will contribute to suggesting potential improvements to the modeling of Alzheimer’s disease. The project will validate the findings by applying them to other organisms... Read More

STEM

Integrating Autonomous Vehicles into Current Roadway Networks

With complete adoption of fully autonomous vehicles likely to take decades, it is important to understand how autonomous cars will operate simultaneously with human-driven cars. This research is investigating how to integrate autonomous vehicles into current roadway infrastructure via simulations of a metropolitan freeway. By measuring average trip time and traffic flow rate, different... Read More

STEM

Interest Levels in Science Classes at Paly

Nationwide, student interest levels are decreasing in science classes, and I want to see if this applies to Paly. I will be interviewing/surveying teachers and students with questions pertaining to the environment of Paly science classes. I will then use the results to draw concolusions about what we are/aren't doing correctly with the curriculum and class structure.

STEM

Metastatic Potentials of Various Cancer Cells

I will be testing the metastatic potential, or the probability of a tumor to spread. In order to do this, I will need to use a Boyden Assay Chamber, which tests for the migration pattern of cells. I will also be manipulating or transfecting the genes in the cancer cells in order to see if it has an impact on the metastatic potential.

STEM

Modelling Control Factors For Mosquitoes In Many Environments

We will be creating a computer simulation that models how populations of mosquitoes are affected by certain vector control methods such as Wolbachia. This simulation will model a variety of methods and their effectiveness in various conditions and environments. The simulation will be interactive, with the ability to add factors in the process.

STEM

Plastic Straws in the Environment

I plan to research the effect of plastic straws in as waste in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems as well as the effects on human health. Then, I will address what has already been done to combat the issue of plastic straw waste by investigating the impact of the new straw ban in Seattle and previous environmental policies that have been implemented in Palo Alto. With this information, I plan... Read More

STEM

Ration Bars

The purpose of my project is to develop a ration bar that fits the needs of people displaced from their homes. I will be looking at aspects of taste, nutrition, durability, and commercial costs of the ration bars. I will be making and testing the ration bars under the guidance of the Food Science teacher.

STEM

Refer to my partner's (Joy Huang) submission; thank you!

Refer to my partner's (Joy Huang) submission; thank you!

STEM

Relationships Between Economic Status and Extracurricular Participation in Palo Alto

The achievement gap seems impacts more than just academics; for example, extracurricular activities are not accessible to everyone. I will be researching whether there is a disparity between various socioeconomic classes and their participation in club sports. My plan is to develop a scholarship program through the Stanford Soccer Club. I will use the application process to gather research... Read More

STEM

Relationships Between NASA Budget Cuts and the Output of Spinoff Biomedical Engineering Projects, and How These Innovations Have Impacted the Medical World

NASA’s spinoff projects have used technologies originally developed for space exploration that have been adapted and further developed for common use, especially relating to the medical world. I am looking into these spinoff projects and collecting data to determine if NASA's budget over the years has had an impact on the output of these projects.

STEM

Relative Health of Native vs. Foreign Trees in Palo Alto

There is a debate about whether native or foreign tree species should be planted in Palo Alto. This project will study how healthy each kind of tree is and use that information to determine what trees are better off in the suburban Palo Alto environment.

STEM

Solar Panels at Paly

This project will examine the feasability and impact of installing solar panels on the Paly campus. This is important to me because solar panels would let us reduce our carbon emissions and move to a more renewable energy source, which in turn will also help address global warming.

STEM

Study on the Effect of Doped Vertical Co, Ni, Fe Dimers in Pristine Graphene

We use the computational chemistry software Quantum Espresso to analyze the effects of doping vertical homonuclear and heteronuclear combinations of cobalt, nickel, and iron in graphene. Our goal is to expand on existing research in the growing field and hopefully affirm past research. We have yet to focus our application--we may focus on topics ranging from anything like water filtration to... Read More

STEM

Sustainable Plants in the Palo Alto Climate

I want to see what plants will thrive in a community garden in the Palo Alto climate. This project will show how anyone can plant an organic edible garden in their own backyard, as long as they have an understanding of the local conditions and which crops to plant. I want to help promote gardening and fresh-grown food people can easily get.

STEM

Testing Graph Theory's Usefulness in Creating New Materials with Expected Properties through Computational Experiments Through Quantum Espresso Computer Simulations

This project will explore whether graph theory can be used to control chirality and model the genesis of chirality, a molecule not superimposable on its mirror image. This will be determined by observing isomorphism, or whether they are corresponding or similar in form, in CoCalc. Also, the project will explore whether properties of nanosystems calculated in Quantum Espresso (i.e.,... Read More

STEM

Testing the Link Between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and HIV

This project will examine the link between chronic fatigue syndrome and HIV. My research will consist of a survey, an analysis of the survey results, conclusions drawn from those results on why the two diseases link in some situations. I plan to look at clinical trials while conducting my own research. My final project will hopefully contain first-person experiences, survey results, clinical... Read More

STEM

Testing Whether GANs Can Generate Photorealistic Images from Rough Sketches

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) can generate images from rough sketches, potentially making image composition much more efficient than it is currently. However, the images from GANs are generally not photorealistic enough to be used in many real life applications. This project will attempt to make a GAN generate truly photorealistic images that can be used in real life applications.

STEM

Testing Whether Marangoni Flows Are Caused by Evaporation and Gravity or Liquid Composition

The problem this project seeks to address is the lack of knowledge on the catalyst to thin film drainage over a curved surface. In certain instances, the drainage of the liquid is interrupted by a unique distribution of surface tension. These flows are called marangoni flows. Surface tension is a measurement of how much a liquid likes to stay in contact with itself. The driving force behind... Read More

STEM

The Effect of Embedding Transition Metals on the Spintronic Properties of Graphene Ribbons

Currently, most traditional computers store and process information in a binary format (as 0s and 1s). However, the electrons of metal atoms can be used to store information, yielding three possible states instead of the traditional two states. We employ computation simulations to investigate the properties of metal doped graphene. Thus, our research aims to find the best configurations of... Read More

STEM

The Effect of Music on Task Performance

The aim of my project is to see whether listening to music while performing tasks is beneficial to performance. I noticed that some teachers at my school allowed students to listen to music while doing classwork, while others did not. I want to examine what impact listening to music has on work performance, if any.

STEM

The Effects of Particle Interactions on Nuclear Level Density and Temperature in the sd-space

Nuclear temperature, a parameter of the equation for level density as a function of energy that represents the internal chaotic motion of the nucleus, can be graphed as a function of the number of neutrons in the nucleus. These trends are the staggering of the temperatures of odd-neutron and even-neutron nuclei, as well as a minimum temperature value at the number of neutrons equaling the... Read More

STEM

The Effects of Stress on Working Memory in High School Students

Have you ever tried to remember a set of numbers only to forget them moments later? The research from this project will be used to create an understanding of how working memory is affected by stress in students ages 13-18.

STEM

The Genetics of Melanoma

The objective of this project is to understand the genetic trends underlying melanoma, a deadly form of cancer. Data will be analyzed to determine the correlation between location, race, and family history. These trends can then be possibly used by medical professionals to predict occurrences of melanoma.

STEM

The Most Economical Way to Leave Earth

The idea behind this particular AAR project is to dig deeper into the practicality of sending satellites, probes, and other equipment into space. The launch of an object (similar to Voyager 1 and 2) to leave Earth will be simulated in this endeavor. A prototype design for a modern orbital class rocket will be developed. Over the course of this project, the estimated cost for launching... Read More

STEM

Using AI to Improve Relations Between the United States and North Korea

North Korea and the United States do not have a friendly relationship, partly because of past conflicts. For my project, I want to look for ways that artificial intelligence can be used to find solutions to the confict between these two nations. AI has been used previously to detect threats, and I want to build upon this idea see if it can be taken a step farther to develop solutions to... Read More

STEM

Using Computational Modeling Techniques to Analyze Cancer Cell/Tumor Growth, and Identifying Best Methods of Analyzing Data from Tools like Mass Spectrometry When Studying Tumor Growth

Despite extensive efforts to analyze cancer cells, no property has yet been found that can be applied to cure all types of cancer. As a result, doctors and pationes often must resort to using chemotherapy or radiotherapy to treat this deadly disease. This problem has negatively impacted cancer patients because it only provides a possibility of short term remission, and it does not contribute... Read More

STEM

Using Emotions to Improve Memorization

Emotional memory is known to have clearer recollections, so seeing which emotion we remember best is helpful in creating techniques for memorization. My project tests which emotion we remember most by having participants watch a video of a certain emotion. After the video, participants will be given a piece of non-emotional information such as a vocabulary word and will be asked to recall it... Read More

STEM

Using Ocean Waves to Generate Power

I will design and build a prototype of a device that generates electricity from the power of ocean waves. It is intended for people who do not have access to electricity due to natural disasters or poverty. I will test it in the ocean and change the prototype to make it more effective and efficient.

STEM

Variations that Affect the Risk of Narcolepsy

I am studying which genes affect narcolepsy and how those genes alter the immune system. Because it is difficult to test this type of question in a lab, I am conducting interviews with professors and researchers to learn what kinds of lab research they are participating in and what knowledge they have of the disease. I am hoping to be able to observe labs and gather enough interviews to be... Read More

STEM

Wolbachia Spread Simulation

This project will be a computer simulation of Wolbachia spread through a given geographic region over some length of time. Initial conditions will include the size of the infected mosquito population to be introduced and the introduction location. Other factors that may affect Wolbachia spread will modeled after real world conditions. Some of these factors include climate, seasonal climate... Read More

Humanities

An Analysis of French and U.S Sino-centric Defense Policy by Examining the implementation of Unilateral Arms Embargoes by the Two Countries

The United States and France are two of the top five arms manufacturers and exporters in the world. Together, they purvey billions of dollars in weapons that fuel worldwide conflicts. This project will analyze the doctrine each government adopts to control their country's defense industry, using the Chinese arms embargo as a case study. This is especially relevant as military cooperation... Read More

Humanities

Analyzing the Achievement Gap in the Bay Area

In the Bay Area, there is a significant achievement gap between students of different races and socioeconomic statuses. I will visit two different local schools (one affluent, one struggling economically) develop and test curriculum to see if it makes a difference in students and their respective achievements. I will be using action research, specifically interviews and focus groups, to... Read More

Humanities

Availability of Physical Therapy to America's Indigent Population, and How It Could be Used to Combat the Opioid Crisis

This project will look into the availability of orthopedic physical therapy services for the indigent population in America. This will involve looking into how many free clinics provide such services as well as how much Medicaid and Medicare will pay for these services. This project will also attempt to determine if physical therapy can be an effective alternative to prescription painkillers... Read More

Humanities

Differences Between an Underground Artist and a Mainstream Artist

"Mainstream" musical artists are artists who can be heard on the radio and who are under contract to a record company. "Underground" artists are artist who do not appear on the radio and must either own their own record company or find alternative means of publishing their music.

Humanities

How Art Can Help Students with Autism

Through interviews, we are going to examine the relationship between children with autism and art. We are going to interview students, parents, and teachers to determine how autistic students' relationship with art evolves as time progresses.

Humanities

How Use of a Teen Mentoring Program Impacts the Academic Engagement of Third Graders

This research project will pilot a mentorship program within the context of a youth support and religious studies program within my church. In 5th grade, there has been a decline in enrollment and a drop-off in the number of students attending the program, and this project will study whether a mentorship program can be effective in sustaining and increasing participation. High school students... Read More

Humanities

I have not decided yet

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Humanities

Implications of Principles of Turner's Thesis on Mass Media

This dissertation examines the primary principles included in Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis to see how it may apply to the rise of mass media in the United States. Turner’s thesis states that the closing of the American western frontier directly led to the outward expansion of the American empire on the international stage. Americans, Turner believed, had a free, explorative... Read More

Humanities

Making Meaning Through Self Portraits

I compose self portraits as a way to express myself and to expand my AP art portfolio. My project will examine the way different techniques used by famous artists were employed to frame personal and cultural meaning (for example, how self portraiture was used to deal with issues like mortality, emotional stress and cultural events). By studying techniques and works from art history, I will use... Read More

Humanities

Racial Disparity in Standardized Testing

In this research project, I explore the factors that contribute to the racial disparity in standardized testing. These factors fall under two categories: social and economic.

Humanities

Sexism in Hollywood

My project examines issues that women currently face in the film industry: sexual misconduct, lack of main speaking roles as actors, and lack of opportunity in attaining major artistic roles, like Director and Cinematographer. This issue has a major effect on the films we watch and the messages we hear.

Humanities

Sunshine (novel)

I am using AAR to work on my novel, titled Sunshine. Sunshine chronicles a post-apocalyptic world, where regular catastrophes plague humanity and can only be driven off by a magical substance called "sunshine." The sunshine-seller, nephew of the deceased legendary figure Light-Bringer, distributes this "sunshine" and befriends two children named Alice and Tim. Throughout the story the... Read More

Humanities

The Benefits of Music Education

This project looks at the various aspects of music education in California. After Proposition 13 was passed, music education took a massive hit and now very few public elementary schools in California offer it. I will be researching the benefits of music education to gather data that demonstrates why it is an essential part of education.

Humanities

The Connection Between Art and Autism

This project will explore the connection between art and autism. We will research the ways art can be used as a tool to benefit children with autism by looking into the effects of exposure to art in the lives of children with autism. We will also be researching whether or not there is a connection between having autism and being exceptionally gifted at art, and if there is, what the reason... Read More

Humanities

The Effectiveness of the Tinsley Program and its Effect on the Racial Achievement Gap Within PAUSD

Minority students consistently perform at a lower average level than other students, creating a racial achievement gap. Many different factors contribute to underperformance by minority students. Despite efforts to integrate students of all ethnicities and educate them at the same level, “Racial and ethnic differences in school performance are a pervasive and troubling feature of the United... Read More

Humanities

The Face of the #Resistance in Santa Clara County

Documentary photography is a powerful medium to study the public actions of citizens. This project will combine documentary photography of local #Resist events with research on how these events fit into the greater political landscape to determine trends in--and effectiveness off--various types of citizen protests at the grassroots level during the Trump presidency.

Humanities

The Ideal Sexual Education for Middle and High School, and How It Compares to PAUSD's Sexual Education

Through researching United States laws, California laws, and studies on sexual education, I am attempting to find the ideal sexual education curriculum that results in the least amount of teenage STIs and pregnancies, as well as an increase in knowledge about consent. By finding the most affective and comprehensive sexual education methods, I will use this tool to compare the sexual education... Read More